Core Concepts


What is TOGAF? | What is Architecture in the Context of TOGAF? | What Kind of Architecture Does TOGAF Deal With? | Architecture Development Method | Deliverables, Artifacts, and Building Blocks | Enterprise Continuum | Architecture Repository | Establishing and Maintaining an Enterprise Architecture Capability | Establishing the Architecture Capability as an Operational Entity | Using TOGAF with Other Frameworks | TOGAF Document Categorization Model

For the purposes of TOGAF 9, the core concepts provided in this chapter apply.

What is TOGAF?

TOGAF is an architecture framework - The Open Group Architecture Framework. TOGAF provides the methods and tools for assisting in the acceptance, production, use, and maintenance of an enterprise architecture. It is based on an iterative process model supported by best practices and a re-usable set of existing architecture assets.

What is Architecture in the Context of TOGAF?

ISO/IEC 42010:2007 defines "architecture" as:

"The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution."

TOGAF embraces but does not strictly adhere to ISO/IEC 42010:2007 terminology. In TOGAF, "architecture" has two meanings depending upon the context:

  1. A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation
  2. The structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time

In TOGAF we endeavor to strike a balance between promoting the concepts and terminology of ISO/IEC 42010:2007 - ensuring that our usage of terms defined by ISO/IEC 42010:2007 is consistent with the standard - and retaining other commonly accepted terminology that is familiar to the majority of the TOGAF readership. For more on terminology, refer to Definitions and Part IV, Architectural Artifacts .

What Kind of Architecture Does TOGAF Deal With?

There are four architecture domains that are commonly accepted as subsets of an overall enterprise architecture, all of which TOGAF is designed to support:

Architecture Development Method

The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) provides a tested and repeatable process for developing architectures. The ADM includes establishing an architecture framework, developing architecture content, transitioning, and governing the realization of architectures.

All of these activities are carried out within an iterative cycle of continuous architecture definition and realization that allows organizations to transform their enterprises in a controlled manner in response to business goals and opportunities.

Phases within the ADM are as follows:

Deliverables, Artifacts, and Building Blocks

Architects executing the ADM will produce a number of outputs as a result of their efforts, such as process flows, architectural requirements, project plans, project compliance assessments, etc. The TOGAF Architecture Content Framework (see Part IV, Introduction) provides a structural model for architectural content that allows major work products to be consistently defined, structured, and presented.

The Architecture Content Framework uses the following three categories to describe the type of architectural work product within the context of use:

The relationships between deliverables, artifacts, and building blocks are shown in Relationships between Deliverables, Artifacts, and Building Blocks .



Figure: Relationships between Deliverables, Artifacts, and Building Blocks

For example, an Architecture Definition Document is a deliverable that documents an architecture description. This document will contain a number of complementary artifacts that are views of the building blocks relevant to the architecture. For example, a process flow diagram (an artifact) may be created to describe the target call handling process (a building block). This artifact may also describe other building blocks, such as the actors involved in the process (e.g., a Customer Services Representative). An example of the relationships between deliverables, artifacts, and building blocks is illustrated in Example - Architecture Definition Document .



Figure: Example - Architecture Definition Document

Enterprise Continuum

TOGAF includes the concept of the Enterprise Continuum, which sets the broader context for an architect and explains how generic solutions can be leveraged and specialized in order to support the requirements of an individual organization. The Enterprise Continuum is a view of the Architecture Repository that provides methods for classifying architecture and solution artifacts as they evolve from generic Foundation Architectures to Organization-Specific Architectures. The Enterprise Continuum comprises two complementary concepts: the Architecture Continuum and the Solutions Continuum.

An overview of the structure and context for the Enterprise Continuum is shown in Enterprise Continuum .



Figure: Enterprise Continuum

Architecture Repository

Supporting the Enterprise Continuum is the concept of an Architecture Repository which can be used to store different classes of architectural output at different levels of abstraction, created by the ADM. In this way, TOGAF facilitates understanding and co-operation between stakeholders and practitioners at different levels.

By means of the Enterprise Continuum and Architecture Repository, architects are encouraged to leverage all other relevant architectural resources and assets in developing an Organization-Specific Architecture.

In this context, the TOGAF ADM can be regarded as describing a process lifecycle that operates at multiple levels within the organization, operating within a holistic governance framework and producing aligned outputs that reside in an Architecture Repository. The Enterprise Continuum provides a valuable context for understanding architectural models: it shows building blocks and their relationships to each other, and the constraints and requirements on a cycle of architecture development.

The structure of the TOGAF Architecture Repository is shown in TOGAF Architecture Repository Structure .



Figure: TOGAF Architecture Repository Structure

The major components within an Architecture Repository are as follows:


Establishing and Maintaining an Enterprise Architecture Capability

In order to carry out architectural activity effectively within an enterprise, it is necessary to put in place an appropriate business capability for architecture, through organization structures, roles, responsibilities, skills, and processes. An overview of the TOGAF architecture capability is shown in TOGAF Architecture Capability Overview .



Figure: TOGAF Architecture Capability Overview

Establishing the Architecture Capability as an Operational Entity

Barring architecture capabilities set up to purely support change delivery programs, it is increasingly recognized that a successful enterprise architecture practice must sit on a firm operational footing. In effect, an enterprise architecture practice must be run like any other operational unit within a business; i.e., it should be treated like a business. To this end, and over and above the core processes defined within the ADM, an enterprise architecture practice should establish capabilities in the following areas:

Central to the notion of operating an ongoing architecture is the execution of well-defined and effective governance, whereby all architecturally significant activity is controlled and aligned within a single framework.

As governance has become an increasingly visible requirement for organizational management, the inclusion of governance within TOGAF aligns the framework with current business best practice and also ensures a level of visibility, guidance, and control that will support all architecture stakeholder requirements and obligations.

The benefits of architecture governance include:

Further detail on establishing an enterprise architecture capability is given in Part VII, Introduction .

Using TOGAF with Other Frameworks

Two of the key elements of any enterprise architecture framework are:

With some exceptions, the majority of enterprise architecture frameworks focus on the first of these - the specific set of deliverables - and are relatively silent about the methods to be used to generate them (intentionally so, in some cases).

Because TOGAF is a generic framework and intended to be used in a wide variety of environments, it provides a flexible and extensible content framework that underpins a set of generic architecture deliverables.

As a result, TOGAF may be used either in its own right, with the generic deliverables that it describes; or else these deliverables may be replaced or extended by a more specific set, defined in any other framework that the architect considers relevant.

In all cases, it is expected that the architect will adapt and build on the TOGAF framework in order to define a tailored method that is integrated into the processes and organization structures of the enterprise. This architecture tailoring may include adopting elements from other architecture frameworks, or integrating TOGAF methods with other standard frameworks, such as ITIL, CMMI, COBIT, PRINCE2, PMBOK, and MSP. Guidelines for adapting the TOGAF ADM in such a way are given in Part II, Adapting the ADM .

As a generic framework and method for enterprise architecture, TOGAF also complements other frameworks that are aimed at specific vertical business domains, specific horizontal technology areas (such as security or manageability), or specific application areas (such as e-Commerce).

TOGAF Document Categorization Model

A TOGAF document categorization model exists to structure the release management of the TOGAF specification. It is not intended to serve as an implementation guide for practitioners.

Within the model, the content of the TOGAF document is categorized according to the following four categories:

The following table maps the content of this document to the four categories.

Section

Category

Comments

 

Preface

TOGAF Mandated

 

 

Part I: Introduction

 

 

1

Introduction

 

 

1.1

Structure of the TOGAF Document

TOGAF Core

 

1.2

Executive Overview

TOGAF Core

 

2

Core Concepts

TOGAF Core

 

3

Definitions

TOGAF Mandated

 

4

Release Notes

TOGAF Supporting

 

 

Part II: Architecture Development Method

 

 

5

Introduction

 

 

5.1

ADM Overview

 

 

5.1.1

The ADM, Enterprise Continuum, and Architecture Repository

TOGAF Mandated

 

5.1.2

The ADM and the Foundation Architecture

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.1.3

ADM and Supporting Guidelines & Techniques

TOGAF Supporting

 

5.2

Architecture Development Cycle

 

 

5.2.1

Key Points

TOGAF Core

 

5.2.2

Basic Structure

TOGAF Core

 

5.3

Adapting the ADM

TOGAF Mandated

 

5.4

Architecture Governance

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.5

Scoping the Architecture

TOGAF Core

Concepts of scoping are Core; specific ways are Recommended.

5.5.1

Enterprise Scope/Focus

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.5.2

Architecture Domains

TOGAF Core

 

5.5.3

Vertical Scope/Level of Detail

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.5.4

Time Period

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.6

Architecture Integration

TOGAF Recommended

 

5.7

Summary

TOGAF Supporting

 

6

Preliminary Phase

 

 

6.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

6.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

6.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

6.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

6.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

7

Phase A: Architecture Vision

 

 

7.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

7.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

7.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

7.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

7.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

8

Phase B: Business Architecture

 

 

8.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

8.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

8.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

8.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

8.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

9

Phase C: Information Systems Architectures

 

 

9.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

9.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

9.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

9.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

9.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

10

Phase C: Data Architecture

 

 

10.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

10.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

10.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

10.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

10.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

11

Phase C: Application Architecture

 

 

11.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

11.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

11.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

11.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

11.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

12

Phase D: Technology Architecture

 

 

12.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

12.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

12.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

12.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

12.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

13

Phase E: Opportunities & Solutions

 

 

13.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

13.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

13.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

13.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

13.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

14

Phase F: Migration Planning

 

 

14.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

14.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

14.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

14.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

14.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

15

Phase G: Implementation Governance

 

 

15.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

15.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

15.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

15.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

15.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

16

Phase H: Architecture Change Management

 

 

16.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

16.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

16.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

16.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

16.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

17

ADM Architecture Requirements Management

 

 

17.1

Objectives

TOGAF Mandated

 

17.2

Approach

TOGAF Recommended

 

17.3

Inputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

17.4

Steps

TOGAF Mandated

 

17.5

Outputs

TOGAF Mandated

 

 

Part III: ADM Guidelines and Techniques

 

 

18

Introduction

TOGAF Supporting

 

19

Applying Iteration to the ADM

TOGAF Core

Concept of iteration is Core; iteration cycles are Recommended.

20

Applying the ADM at Different Enterprise Levels

TOGAF Recommended

 

21

Security Architecture and the ADM

TOGAF Recommended

 

22

Using TOGAF to Define & Govern SOAs

TOGAF Supporting

 

23

Architecture Principles

TOGAF Supporting

 

23.1

Introduction

 

 

23.2

Characteristics of Architecture Principles

TOGAF Recommended

 

23.3

Components of Architecture Principles

TOGAF Recommended

 

23.4

Developing Architecture Principles

TOGAF Recommended

 

23.5

Applying Architecture Principles

TOGAF Recommended

 

23.6

Example Set of Architecture Principles

TOGAF Recommended

 

24

Stakeholder Management

 

 

24.1

Introduction

TOGAF Mandated

 

24.2

Approach to Stakeholder Management

TOGAF Mandated

 

24.3

Steps in the Stakeholder Management Process

TOGAF Recommended

 

24.4

Template Stakeholder Map

TOGAF Recommended

 

25

Architecture Patterns

TOGAF Supporting

 

26

Business Scenarios

TOGAF Recommended

 

27

Gap Analysis

TOGAF Recommended

 

28

Migration Planning Techniques

TOGAF Recommended

 

29

Interoperability Requirements

TOGAF Recommended

 

30

Business Transformation Readiness
Assessment

TOGAF Recommended

 

31

Risk Management

TOGAF Recommended

 

32

Capability-Based Planning

TOGAF Recommended

 

 

Part IV: Architecture Content Framework

 

 

33

Introduction

TOGAF Recommended

 

34

Content Metamodel

TOGAF Recommended

 

35

Architectural Artifacts

TOGAF Recommended

For the views, the content example is Supporting.

36

Architecture Deliverables

TOGAF Mandated

 

37

Building Blocks

 

 

37.1

Overview

TOGAF Core

 

37.2

Introduction

TOGAF Core

 

37.3

Building Blocks and the ADM

TOGAF Recommended

 

37.4

Building Block Example

TOGAF Recommended

 

 

Part V: Enterprise Continuum & Tools

 

 

38

Introduction

TOGAF Supporting

 

39

Enterprise Continuum

TOGAF Mandated

 

40

Architecture Partitioning

TOGAF Supporting

 

41

Architecture Repository

TOGAF Supporting

 

42

Tools for Architecture Development

TOGAF Recommended

Current contents are Supporting.

42.1

Overview

TOGAF Supporting

 

42.2

Issues in Tool Standardization

TOGAF Supporting

 

42.3

Evaluation Criteria and Guidelines

TOGAF Supporting

 

 

Part VI: TOGAF Reference Models

 

 

43

Foundation Architecture: Technical
Reference Model

 

 

43.1

Concepts

TOGAF Mandated

 

43.2

High-Level Breakdown

TOGAF Recommended

 

43.3

TRM in Detail

TOGAF Recommended

 

43.4

Application Platform - Taxonomy

TOGAF Recommended

 

43.5

Detailed Platform Taxonomy

TOGAF Recommended

 

44

Integrated Information Infrastructure
Reference Model

TOGAF Recommended

 

 

Part VII: Architecture Capability Framework

 

 

45

Introduction

TOGAF Supporting

 

46

Establishing an Architecture Capability

TOGAF Recommended

 

47

Architecture Board

TOGAF Recommended

 

48

Architecture Compliance

TOGAF Recommended

 

49

Architecture Contracts

TOGAF Recommended

 

50

Architecture Governance

TOGAF Recommended

 

51

Architecture Maturity Models

TOGAF Supporting

 

52

Architecture Skills Framework

TOGAF Supporting

 

A

Glossary of Supplementary Definitions

TOGAF Supporting

 

B

Abbreviations

TOGAF Supporting

 


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Downloads

Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, are available under license from the TOGAF information web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to use TOGAF entirely for internal purposes (for example, to develop an information system architecture for use within that organization). A book is also available (in hardcopy and pdf) from The Open Group Bookstore as document G091.


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